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露地(ろじ)の作り方「茶庭(ちゃにわ)」


十川日本庭園研究室です。今回は露地の作り方についてご紹介いたします。一口に露地と言っても、使用目的とお招きする方々の人数や客層、そしてお手入れする頻度やそれに従事する方の人数といった、作庭にあたり必要な情報を予めリサーチする必要があります。

This is the Tokawa Japanese Garden Laboratory. This time, I will introduce how to make an roji. Even if you say roji, it is necessary to research in advance the necessary information for gardening such as the purpose of use, the number of guests and customers, the frequency of care and the number of people engaged in it.

計画内容  Contents of the plan


「何を主体にするのか」を施主様と事前に綿密な打ち合わせをいたします。今回は、基本的にお茶事(ちゃじ)のお稽古が主目的ということでした。(水屋(みずや)の人数は、5~6名想定)
茶室内の清掃及び、露地の草取り・掃除は一人で一日、または二人で半日位を目安にし、中門(ちゅうもん)の迎付(むかえつけ)は他の流派でも対応できるようにいたします。木の多い街なので、竹垣で囲い、あまり植栽をせずに別世界を作ろうという試みです。
大人数のお客様を招いたときにも全て対応できるような設計で、更に小中学生の生徒さんも無理なく使用できるように配慮します。
施工は、社中(しゃちゅう)の皆さんで手伝っていただきましたので、使い勝手は大変良くなりました。今後、露地作りをされる方の参考になれば幸いです。

We will discuss “What is the focus?” with the client in detail in advance. This time, the main purpose was basically to practice tea ceremony. (The number of people in the Mizuya is assumed to be 5 ~ 6.)
The cleaning of the teahouse and the weeding and cleaning of the roji should take about one day by one person or half a day by two people, and the welcoming service of the Chumon gate can be handled by other schools. Since it is a town with many trees, it is an attempt to create a different world by surrounding it with a bamboo fence without planting much.
It is designed so that it can be used when a large number of customers are invited, and moreover, consideration is given so that elementary and junior high school students can use it without difficulty.
Because everyone in the company helped me with the construction, it became very easy to use. I hope it will be helpful for those who are going to make open air space in the future.

石組(いわぐみ)・飛石(とびいし) Stone arrangement and Tobi-ishi(stepping-stones)

躙口(にじりぐち)前の踏石(ふみいし)、落石(おちいし)を仮置きします。踏石、落石はバランスが悪いので、後程交換します。踏石は躙口に膝がかかるように据え付けますが、人により様々です。今回はお施主様の希望通りに据え付けました。また、草履(ぞうり)が揃え易いようにします。

The humi-ishi and ochi-ishi* in front of nijiriguchi* are temporarily placed. The ochi-ishi are unbalanced, so we will change them later. humi-ishi is installed so that the knee is put on nijiriguchi, but it varies depending on the person. This time, we installed it as the owner requested. Also, make it easy to arrange zori sandals.

Humi-ishi and Ochi-ishi
The first stone is called kutsunugishi-ishi , and the second is called ochi-ishi.It is a term used especially in relation to stepping stones at Nijiriguchi .
Nijiriguchi
It is the entrance of guests to the tea room. It is peculiar to a small room, about 65 cm in height and 60 cm in width. It is so called because it is so narrow that it nips into the skin with its knees.

貴人口(きにんぐち)前の沓脱石(くつぬぎいし)を仮置きします。
The kutsunugi-ishi* in front of the Kinin-guchi* is temporarily placed.
沓脱石は大振りで安定感のある石が良いと思います。
As for kutsunugi-ishi, I think it is good to have a large and stable stone.

Kutsunugi-ishi
The first stone to step down when leaving the veranda or shoin.
There is a 5 ~ 6 cm gap between the building and the stone to store footwear in the rain. Alternate names: Ichiban-ishi (first stone), Ichi-no-ishi (first stone), Toki-ishi (stepping stone), and so on.

Kinin-guchi
Kinin-guchi is an entrance that you can enter standing up to let in and out of high class customers.

中鉢式蹲踞(なかばちしきつくばい)周りの役石(やくいし)を仮置きします。
The yaku-ishi( It is a stepping-stone or stone arrangement in a Japanese garden, and is placed at an important point from the aspect of landscape and function.)around the Nakabachi-shiki tsukubai is temporarily placed.


何度も歩いて、導線を確認しながら飛石と景石(けいせき)を仮置きします。
内露地(うちろじ)の飛石は芯々43cm前後の間隔です。
We walk many times and check the lead wires and temporarily place Tobi-ishi and Kei-seki*. The stepping stones in the inner garden are about 43 cm apartfrom each other(at the core).

Kei-seki
The “Kei-seki” in Japanese gardens are stones designed to improve the landscape among garden stones, and are natural stones and rocks arranged in the garden without being processed.How can we observe the shapes of rocks and rocks and create beautiful natural landscapes such as mountains and waterfalls? is considered and arranged by the gardener.

仮設の腰掛待合(こしかけまちあい)周りに、飛石を仮置きします。
外露地(そとろじ)の飛石はやや大きめで芯々47cm前後です。
You put tobi-ishi temporarily around the koshikake-machiai*.
The tobi-ishi in the outer garden are a little large and about 47 cm in length(at the core).

Koshikake-machiai*
A stool set up in an open space outside the tea room as a resting place while waiting for people who have gathered for the tea ceremony.

寄付待合(よりつきまちあい)からの飛石を仮置きします。
The stepping stones from the donation waiting room will be temporarily placed.

蹲踞(つくばい)を組みます。
セメントを使わず、石を組み合わせて周りからの土圧で固定します。
We do tsukubai.
It is fixed by earth pressure from the surroundings by combining stones without using cement.

夜話(よばなし)に使う手燭(てしょく)を置いて確認します。
裏千家では、手燭石(てしょくいし)が右側で左側の湯桶石(ゆおけいし)よりやや高く据えます。
Put the candle used for yobanashi(It is a tea ceremony held from dusk between the time of winter solstice and the first day of spring) and confirm.
In Urasenke, you place a candle on the right side a little higher than the yuokeishi( A stone placed between a chozubachi and a maeishi in a tsukubai, facing a teshoku-ishi stone. Place the yuto in winter)on the left side.

景石を据え付けます。
We will set a kei-seki.

仮設の腰掛待合周りの飛石を据え付けます。但し便宜上、後に改修工事を行います。
We install flying stones around the koshikake-machiai.However, we will do the repair work later for convenience.

竹垣 Takegaki

竹垣用の柱を立て込みます。
中門(ちゅうもん)の柱は、手を汚さないように白木を用います。乗越石(のりこえいし)とのバランスが重要です。
Stand the pillar for bamboo fence.
Plain wood is used for the pillar of the inner gate so as not to get your hands dirty. The balance with the norikoe-ishi(a stone placed at the entrance of a gate) is important.

竹を真鍮ブラシで洗います。Wash the bamboo with a brass brush.

掃出し口(はきだしぐち)を隠すため鉄砲垣(てっぽうがき)を作ります。立子(たてこ)を七五三で割り振ります。
We make a teppou-gaki(bamboo fence) to hide the spout. Allocates the tateko by 753.

御影石(みかげいし)は足が滑らないように表面にビシャンをかけます。
Granite bisham(bush hammer) the surface to prevent slipping.

建仁寺垣(けんにんじがき)の立子をかき付けます。We draw the Risko of Kenninjigaki.

中門の四ツ目垣を作ります。
四ツ目垣は、左右胴縁(どうぶち)の本数を変えてあそびを入れ、立子の天端(てんば)をみだれにします。
We will build a yotsume-gaki around the inner gate.
Yotsume-gaki is played by changing the number of right and left body edges to make the top edge of the tateko sleepers.

植栽・内露地の仕上げ Planting and finishing of Uchi-roji(inner garden)

ヤマボウシを植え付けます。We plant mountain lily.

お茶席での楊枝(ようじ)に使えるよう黒文字(くろもじ)を植えて、地均しをしながらコケを張ります。
We plant kuromoji tree so that we can use them as a picks for sweets at a tea ceremony, and spread moss while leveling the ground.

コケに水をかけて、中門の柱の先を尖らせ兜巾(ときん)にします。
Pour water on the moss and make the tip of the pillar of the chumon into a tokin(a headgear with a circular peak).
兜巾は魔よけの効果があると言われています。
Tokin is said to have an effect to ward off evil.

飛石周りの整地は、手バールやハンマー等で良く突き固め、手帚(てぼうき)と地鏝(じごて)などを使い、石の輪郭(りんかく)が出るように際を丁寧に仕上げます。
For leveling the ground around stepping stones, use a hand bar or a hammer to harden it well, and use a broom and trowel to carefully finish the edges so that the outline of the stone comes out.

化粧砂利(けしょうじゃり)を入れて内露地が完成。
The inner garden was completed by adding decorative gravel.

外露地・腰掛待合 Soto-roji (outer garden) and Koshikake-machiai (sitting rooms)

腰掛待合前は地名に因んで六つの山を作り、タマリュウを植えます。
タマリュウの肥料は多いほうが良いです。バーク堆肥であれば一対一でも良く育ちます。In front of Koshikake-machiai, we make six mountains and plant Tamaryu.It is better to use a lot of Tamaryu fertilizer. Burke manure can grow well even one-on-one.

外露地も化粧砂利を入れて均します。ホコリの多い地域なので、砂利は下にモルタルを打たずに数年後に入れ替えます。
We also put decorative gravel in the outdoor garden. As it is a dusty area, gravel will be replaced after several years without mortar.

腰掛待合前改修工事。
Renovation work in front of the Koshikake-Machiai.
滑らないように、敷石(しきいし)にビシャンをかけます。
Bishan the paving stones so they don’t slip.

腰掛待合前に敷石を据え付けます。
We set the paving stones in front of the koshikake-machiai.
煙草盆(たばこぼん)と円座(えんざ)が運びやすいように御影石の平板(へいばん)を用いました。
Granite plates are used to make it easier to carry a tobacco tray and a round seat.

仮設の腰掛待合に、五人座れるようになりました。
Five people are now able to sit in the makeshift koshikake-machiai.

水屋方面への飛石。The steppingstones towards Mizuya.
結界(けっかい)となる関守石(せきもりいし)を置きます。
A sekimori-ishi(a stone placed at the junction of stepping-stones in a tea garden and used as a sign to block traffic) is placed as a barrier.

腰掛待合周りの配石。
The stone arrangement around the koshikake-machiai.

裏千家では亭主が外露地まで出ますが、表千家や他の流派では中門迎付です。
In Urasenke, the host goes to the outer garden, but in Omotesenke and other schools, it is called Chumon-mukaetsuke(In a tea ceremony, the host courteously greets the guests who are waiting at the roji (a garden adjacent to a ceremonial tea-ceremony house) sitting on a stool.

飛石の色を変えることにより分かりやすくしました。尚、中央奥のやや大ぶりの離れた石は鐘聞石(かねききいし)です。
We made it easier to understand by changing the color of stepping stones. In addition, the stone which is slightly far from the center is Kanekiki-ishi*

Kanekiki-ishi
One of the yaku-ishi (a stone role) of koshikake-machiai (sitting room).The stones are arranged along with syokyaku-ishi and renkyaku-ishi.The name comes from the fact that, at a signal from the host, the guests of Machiai stand on this stone from a stool and listen to the bell..

他の流派にも対応できるような中門の配石。
The stone arrangement of the Chumon gate is compatible with other schools.
手前から正客石(しょうきゃくいし)、大きめの乗越石(のりこえいし)、小さめの亭主石(ていしゅいし)です。
They are from the front, the shokyaku-ishi, the large norikoe-ishi , and the small teishu-ishi.
乗越石上の枝折戸(しおりど)の位置は、六対四または七対三で外露地が広くなります。
The position of the branch door above the norikoe-ishi is six to four or seven to three, and the outside garden is wide.

景石にかけた建仁寺垣とみだれ四ツ目垣。
Kenninji-gaki and Midare-yotsume-gaki on a keiseki

内露地の配石と建仁寺垣。
The layout of the inner garden and Kenninji-gaki fence.
押縁(おしぶち)は一二三(ひふみ)で三はスハマ。
The hem is 123 and 3 is a Suhama.

蹲踞と左側貴人口前に関守石の乗った短冊石(たんざくいし)。
Tsukubai and tanzaku-ishi on which Sekimori-ishi was placed in front of the left kininguchi
着物を汚さないように前石は大きく、海(うみ)は深くします。
To keep your kimono clean, the mae-ishi should be big and the “umi(sea) “should be deep.

茶室内からの景観。
View from inside the tea room

塵穴(ちりあな)と塵箸(ちりばし)。Chiriana and Chiribashi.
雨の時には、軒下なのでここを蹲踞代わりにすることもあります。
When it rains, it is under the eaves, so we sometimes use this place instead of Tsukubai.
覗石(のぞきいし)は、桶が乗るように平天石(へいてんせき)にします。
Nozoki-ishi( Stones in front of a bowl or dustpan are used for tateishi (standing stones), and dustpan are built over the edge of dustpan and dustpan are used to hold dustpan.)are made flat so that a tub can ride on them.

躙口前の配石。
The stone arrangement in front of nijiriguchi (small door into a tea ceremony hut).
お見送りに配慮することが重要です。
It is important to consider seeing someone off.

あとがき Afterword

露地は使う方々が一緒に作ることが「最良の方法」だと痛切に感じました。若い頃に設計し初めて作った露地でしたが、小中学生からも学ぶことが多い現場でした。
また、景観だけでなく実用を兼ねると庭づくりは楽しいものです。

本を読みながら露地を作る方に一言。

本を書くような先生や学者さんは、あらゆることを想定して最高峰の内容にすることが多いです。即ち、社中にお弟子さんがたくさんいて、財力がある方を基準に書かれているようです。
しかし、現代社会では仕事や育児などで多忙な方が多い事や、植木のお手入れに費用が掛かること等を考えると、あまり欲張らずに管理しやすいように作ることをお勧めします。

I keenly felt that it is “best way” that the people who use the roji make it together. It was my first garden(roji) that I designed when I was young, but I learned a lot from elementary and elementary school students and junior high school students.
In addition, it is fun to make a garden not only for the scenery but also for practical use. A word to the person who makes the garden while reading a book. Teachers and scholars who write books often think about everything and make the contents the best. In other words, it seems to be written based on the person who has a lot of disciples and financial power in the company.
However, in modern society, many people are busy with work and childcare, and it costs a lot to take care of plants, so I recommend making it easy to manage without being too greedy.

せっかくの大切な露地を荒らしてはもったいないので。ご注意を。
I don’t want to waste your garden. Be careful.

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十川 洋明(トカワ ヨウメイ)

17歳で庭の世界へ飛び込み、その素晴らしさに魅了されました。造園会社数社で修行を積み、1996年に「作庭処 彌右エ門」(現 十川日本庭園研究室)として独立。以来、個人邸の作庭工事を手がけながら、古庭園に興味を持ち京都を初め全国の庭園を見てまわり研鑽を積んでいます。千葉県山武市在住。

 

<主な経歴>
1998年 重森三玲記念館庭園施工
1999年 靖國神社神池整備工事参加
2001年 靖國神社苑内常駐管理責任者
2004年 中国蘇州市に日本庭園施工

 

通常業務以外に日本庭園の古式工法の検証及び技術指導・講演も行っております。詳しく公開されることがなかった技術を、様々な方々にご提供できればと考えております。ご質問・ご相談等、お気軽にメールにてお問合せください。

 

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